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The growing use of "pro forma" financial results -- that is, when companies report income
or loss figures excluding a host of supposedly "one-time" charges -- is drawing attention
from critics who say companies may be publishing pro forma earnings
to make quarterly earnings reports look better than they actually are.
"It's a pasta primavera," Harvard University assistant professor of accounting Mark
Bradshaw told the E-Commerce Times "Everybody has their own recipe. That's the problem."